In these designs, the reflective surface is created by the end of a conductor, normally a thin metal wire or rod, which in the simplest case has a feed point at one end where it is connected to a.
Additional elements in the antenna structure, which need not be directly connected to the receiver or transmitter, increase its directionality.
Although a square patch could be fed on two adjacent sides with the proper phases to obtain circularly polarized radiation, simpler circularly polarized patches have been developed.
Slyusar, Vadym 20—23 September 2011.
The greater Q for a given impedance transformation ratio, the greater network phase shift becomes.
Resonant antennas usually use a linear conductor or element , or pair of such elements, each of which is about a quarter of the wavelength in length an odd multiple of quarter wavelengths will also be resonant.